Latest update: how do you diagnose a colonic torsion?

One of the many VETbytes features is its ‘latest evidence’ feed, which provides a snapshot of the latest evidence in bitesize form, recently added to the emergency and critical care module.

Rapid identification of colonic torsion is imperative to prevent significant ischaemic injuries.

A new study by Czajkowski and Fryer,* describes a rapid, low morbidity test that can be used in cases of suspected colonic torsion in dogs which may help to differentiate this rare condition from generalised ileus or small intestinal volvulus.

To view the full evidence feed and find out how to recognise a colonic torsion in your patients, sign up for a free trial of the VETbytes emergency and critical care module or subscribe for an annual licence for only £99/year!

*Czajkowski, P.S., Fryer, K.J. (2020)
Colonic torsion in 4 Great Danes
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care30 (5) 581-586

Ask VETbytes: Post-operative pain relief options for dogs and cats undergoing caesarean section

Ask VETbytes

In our new feature ‘Ask VETbytes’, our team of vets will be answering your questions. This week we were asked “What are the options for post-operative pain relief in dogs and cats undergoing caesarean section?”

This is an area where veterinary evidence is lacking and where our patients don’t always receive adequate analgesia, so we have drawn on both human studies and specialist veterinary consensus to create a practical guide for you and your patients:

  • Despite the paucity of published evidence regarding the safety of analgesic drugs in the pregnant or lactating dog and cat it is important to recognise our responsibility to the welfare of our patients regarding the provision of adequate analgesia10
  • It is estimated that the neonate receives approximately 1–2% of the maternal dose of a drug14
  • A longer acting opioid injection may be administered after all the foetuses have been removed e.g. methadone 0.1–0.2 mg/kg10,41
  • In women, NSAIDs are considered safe and effective analgesia after caesarean section because of their low excretion in breast milk38,40
    The same is considered likely to apply to dogs and cats due to the known physiochemical properties of the drugs13,14
    A single dose administered in the immediate postoperative period is generally advocated10,14
    Consider ongoing administration, as required, for 1-2 days after discharge13
  • Paracetamol is generally considered safe in dogs14 
  • NSAIDs should only be administered if the bitch/queen is normovolaemic and normotensive13
  • Paracetamol should NOT be used in cats14
  • None of these drugs are licensed for lactating bitches or queens, ensure that prior owner consent is obtained for their use

Sign up for a free trial of the VETbytes emergency and critical care module to receive full clinical guides or subscribe for an annual licence for only £99/year!


10. Self, I. (2019)
Anaesthesia for canine caesarean section
Companion Animal; 24 (2) 84-90

13. Robertson, S. (2016)
Anaesthetic management for caesarean sections in dogs and cats
In Practice;38(7) 327-339

14. Mathews, K., Kronen, P.W., Lascelles,D., et al. (2014)
WSAVA Guidelines for Recognition, Assessment and Treatment of Pain
Journal of Small Animal Practice55 (6) E10-68
Full text available

38. Bloor, M. and Paech, M. (2013)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the initiation of lactation
Anesthesia and Analgesia;116 (5) 1063-1075

40. Spigset, O., Hägg, S. (2000)
Analgesics and Breast-Feeding: Safety considerations
Paediatric Drugs 2(3), 223–238

41. Romagnoli, N., Barbarossa, A., Cunto, M., et al (2019)
Evaluation of methadone concentrations in bitches and in umbilical cords after epidural or systemic administration for caesarean section: A randomized trial
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 46(3), 375-383

Don’t stress: VETbytes offers vital stress relief for emergency vets

Emergency and critical care work can be stressful and demanding, and rising caseloads are contributing to more cases of burnout in the veterinary profession. With the application of evidence-based veterinary medicine, VETbytes offers a stress-relief manifesto.

A new survey conducted by the British Veterinary Association has found that three-quarters of vets are concerned about stress and burnout, with the small animal vet category ‘most concerned’ – a situation compounded by the coronavirus pandemic.

Emergency medicine has the added stress of long work hours, an intense work environment with pressure to efficiently identify clinical needs and manage client expectations. Being able to access the best clinical guidance in emergency situations can be a key factor in managing stress levels and improving patient outcomes.

The emergency and critical care app from VETbytes was created as a clinical support tool for veterinary teams, providing evidence-based veterinary information in concise clinical guides. Vets can now also access the ‘latest updates’ feature to seamlessly stay up to date with the latest findings in ECC.

“VETbytes exists to bring evidence-based medicine to the fore of veterinary general practice,” said Zoë Coker and Bronwen Eastwood, co-founders of VETbytes. “Now is a crucial moment for vets to take action to help reduce stress levels, VETbytes offers a cost-effective and simple way to do this.”

VETbytes provides clear benefits to clinicians such as more efficient case management and reduction of errors and stress, which are especially important during the pandemic.

VETbytes is accessible on mobile, iPad and desktop. The latest evidence added to the ECC app is available to view here.

Podcast Interview: What Vetbytes? Bronwen, Brighton and Belize

Scott Kilpatrick, director (Internal Medicine) at veterinary thought exchange chatted to Bronwen Eastwood, Co-Founder of VETbytes earlier this week for the vtx podcast. Click here to listen to the full interview and hear Bronwen’s amazing career that has taken her from Brighton to Belize and back again!

In the interview, Bronwen explains how she went on to co-found VETbytes, after recognising a void for a resource that provides up-to-date, evidence-based, user-friendly clinical information. Alongside co-founder Zoe Coker, Bronwen co-wrote some of the treatment guides for the VETbytes emergency and critical care app, a subscription-based resource designed to support vets who need to keep up to date and provide an excellent service to their clients and patients. 

Updates feed launched to help vets stay current with evidence-based knowledge

The point-of-care clinical support tool, VETbytes, has added to the veterinary resource by introducing a ‘latest updates’ feed to its first app for emergency and critical care (ECC).

Launched in July in partnership with the BSAVA, VETbytes has enhanced its ability to make relevant research accessible to the end user by implementing a ‘latest updates’ evidence feed to its emergency and critical care (ECC) app.

Vets treating small animals can now access condensed summaries of the most recently published papers relevant to ECC, enabling them to keep up to date with the evidence without having to spend hours reading.

“This new feature will allow users to access real-time updates to the app so they can be assured they are following the most up-to-date clinical guidance,” said Zoë Coker and Bronwen Eastwood, co-founders of VETbytes.

The British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA), the founding partner of VETbytes, welcomes the development to the ECC app for its members: “The latest addition to the app advances our joint goal with VETbytes, to provide the latest practical, accessible, evidence-based resources for the small animal veterinary community.” said BSAVA President Professor Ian Ramsey.

The VETbytes app is available to BSAVA members with discounted subscription fees and free access is offered to veterinary students.

To view the ‘latest updates’ feed, click here.

The ECC app, available from VETbytes, currently covers more than 100 topics and includes other features such as drug (and CRI) calculators, a quick reference section and links to hundreds of source abstracts, as well as CPD accreditation for reflective learning through usage of the app.

VETbytes is available at the point of care on mobile, iPad or desktop. To start a free trial or subscribe to the VETbytes app, visit

Fecal microbiota transplantation in parvovirus puppies

We’ve noticed an increase in parvovirus cases recently so we thought we’d share a few snippets from the treatment section of our parvovirus page. To see the full condition, subscribe or sign up for a free trial today.

Did you know?

  • In a recent study, parvovirus-infected puppies that received faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in addition to standard therapy showed a faster resolution of diarrhoea compared to dogs that only received standard therapy
  • 61% of cases receiving FMT showed resolution of diarrhoea within 48 hours compared to only 5% without


  • 10 g of healthy donor faeces diluted in 10 ml 0.9% NaCl and introduced anally to the proximal rectum via a urinary catheter
  • Maintain in lateral recumbency for 2 minutes with pelvis raised 45% from the surface
  • Perform within 6–12 hrs of admission and repeat q48h until resolution of diarrhoea, or up to five doses

Perira, G.Q., Gomes, L.A., Santos, I.S. et al. (2018)
Fecal microbiota transplantation in puppies with canine parvovirus infection
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine; 32 (2) 707-711. Full text available

Don’t forget environmental control

  • Parvovirus can survive in the environment for up to 1 year and is very difficult to kill
  • Clean the area thoroughly first as the presence of organic matter, e.g. faeces or blood, can greatly impact the efficacy of disinfectants
  • Disinfect the environment with sodium hypochlorite (bleach)
    0.75% solution for 1 minute contact time or
    0.37% solution with 15 minute contact time
  • Steam cleaning for surfaces that do not tolerate bleach
  • Careful disposal of faeces

Cavalli, A., Marinaro, M., Desario, C., Corrente, M., Camero, M. and Buonavoglia, C. (2018)
In vitro virucidal activity of sodium hypochlorite against canine parvovirus type 2
Epidemiology and Infection; 146 (15) 2010–2013. Full text available

VETbytes provides the latest evidence-based treatment with its Keep It Simple Summaries (KISS). Quickly access a general overview of how to handle a case, later access the detailed section when you have more time and can reflect upon your learning with our CPD links.

Try VETbytes for 30 days for free, or subscribe for only £9.99/month or £99.00/year (BSAVA members get 33% off). Sign up today.

Xylitol poisoning in dogs in less than a minute with VETbytes

Would you know how to handle a case of xylitol toxicity? Get straight to the point of care with VETbytes’ treatment action plan. Read the ‘Key Points’ checklist in under a minute before the client arrives and know that you are up-to-date and ready for action!

Xylitol poisoning in dogs

  • Ingestion can cause hypoglycaemia, hepatic failure or both
  • Dogs that ingest > 0.05–0.1 g/kg are at risk for developing hypoglycaemia
    This usually occurs 30–60 minutes after ingestion
  • Dogs that ingest > 0.5 g/kg are at risk for developing hepatotoxicosis and acute hepatic failure. This usually occurs 1–3 days after ingestion
  • Can estimate that 1 cup of xylitol contains 190g and 1 piece of gum contains 0.3-1g of xylitol
  • Emesis is indicated unless the animal is showing signs of hypoglycaemia or has ingested 100% xylitol products more than 30 minutes prior to presentation as clinical signs may develop during decontamination, risking aspiration
  • Charcoal is NOT recommended as xylitol is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and binds poorly to charcoal
  • Administer dextrose to hypoglycaemic patients at a dose of 0.25–0.5 g/kg 50% dextrose i/v over 10 minutes (0.5–1 ml/kg 50% dextrose)
  • Hepatoprotectants are indicated in patients that have ingested hepatotoxic doses, e.g. SAMe, Silybin or N-acetylcysteine. There is however no strong clinical evidence to prove their efficacy
  • Additional treatments may include management of coagulation defects and gastroprotectants although evidence is scarce that hepatic disease is a direct cause of gastroduodenal ulceration and erosion
Don’t be caught out!
  • Dogs may present with acute hepatic failure without having shown initial signs of hypoglycaemia
  • Asymptomatic dogs with known ingestion of xylitol should be hospitalised for at least 72 hours in case of delayed-onset hypoglycaemia which may be seen when gum is ingested, or in case of development of hepatic failure without hypoglycaemia
Prognosis is good for dogs that develop uncomplicated hypoglycaemia but poor to guarded for those that develop hepatic failure.

Try VETbytes for 30 days for free, or subscribe for only £9.99/month or £99.00/year (BSAVA members get 33% off). Sign up today.

Heatstroke – VETbytes’ do’s and don’ts of treating dogs

Summer is the time of year when we are most likely to be presented with a case of heatstroke. Are you up to date with the do’s and don’ts of active cooling? Use VETbytes to quickly access the information you need to make the right clinical decisions.

Cooling before presentation to the vet is associated with improved survival

  • Advise the owner to begin cooling immediately using either wet towels to wipe/wet the patient or a hose with cool water
  • Recommend that the owners keep the windows open in the car on the way to the surgery

Recommended methods for cooling:

  • Running water – hose, shower
  • Fan (care not to apply near the head and apply lubricant to the eyes to protect the corneas)
  • Place on a cool surface
  • Spray alcohol onto the extremities
  • Cold packs on large vessels (e.g. axilla, groin, jugular)
  • Massaging while active cooling
  • Flow by oxygen
  • Room temperature enema (severe hyperthermia)

Do not:

  • Immerse in water or ice bath
  • Leave wet towels over the patient
  • Use ice-cold water (will result in vasocontriction and discomfort)
  • Place in a small cage
  • Use antipyretics, e.g. NSAIDs as may have multi-organ dysfunction


  • Monitor the temperature every 10 minutes
  • Avoid hypothermia, stop cooling when temperature 39.5°C

Don’t forget that early therapeutic renal support is crucial in heatstroke treatment as AKI is often only observed hours after thermal injury

Subscribe for a free trial to see the complete clinical guide to heatstroke management.

Special offers for BSAVA members. BSAVA members receive exclusive discounts and access to VETbytes. To find out more, click here.

Emergency Guide for Treating Feline Urethral Obstruction

Treating feline urethral obstruction can challenge the most experienced vet. You have an unstable patient who will die if left untreated. You need to make critical decisions about investigation and treatment for a successful outcome. Your clients and patients are depending on it.

VETbytes is your new clinical companion. On desktop, tablet or phone, its evidence-based concise clinical summaries will support you every step of the way. Available at the point-of-care, when and where you need it, VETbytes has the answers to help you treat these cases with confidence.

Formulate a diagnostic and treatment plan

Formulate a diagnostic and treatment plan with our Keep It Simple Summaries:
  • Step 1 – I/V fluids to manage cardiovascular compromise
  • Step 2 – Manage hyperkalaemia if still present
  • Step 3 – GA or sedate to relieve obstruction +/- place indwelling catheter
  • Step 4 – Analgesia, muscle relaxants, supportive care
  • Step 5 – Manage any post-obstruction diuresis
  • Step 6 – Address the underlying cause

Find urgent answers to critical-care questions with VETbytes:

What about cystocentesis?

  • Controversial, however recent evidence concluded that it is a low-risk procedure in this population of patients
  • May aid catheterisation, reduce discomfort and improve GFR
  • Potential risk of bladder tear/rupture
  • Indicated for those cases in which urethral catheterisation cannot be performed or that are very unstable and need sedation/GA
  • To reduce risk, use a flexible collection system and enter the ventral aspect of the bladder wall and angle caudally 45 degrees
  • Repeated cystocentesis is discouraged

What about cystocentesis?

What about I/V fluids? Will I rupture the bladder?

  • It is vital to achieve cardiovascular stability before general anaesthesia or sedation
  • Due to reduced renal blood flow and decreased GFR, urine production will be minimal so concerns about bladder rupture at this stage are misguided
  • However, relief of the obstruction should follow immediately after cardiovascular stability has been achieved

What about I/V fluids? Will I rupture the bladder?
Which catheter do I choose?

  • A rigid catheter, e.g. Standard (Jackson-type) tomcat catheter (polypropylene) can be used to relieve the obstruction if unsuccessful with softer catheters, but these are not suitable to be left in situ
  • A polytetrafluoroethylene open-ended catheter or a 20–22 G over-the-needle catheter (with stylet removed) may be more useful for distal obstructions
  • Larger catheters may cause more irritation or trauma, smaller catheters may get luminal obstruction and the patient may be able to urinate around the catheter
  • Use 3.5 Fr or 5 Fr

Which catheter do I choose?
Should I leave an indwelling catheter?

  • Indicated if severe azotaemia, severe bladder distension, cystic calculi or grossly abnormal urine
  • Indwelling catheters need to be soft (e.g. polyurathane), atraumatic and long enough to reach the bladder in large cats and should be attached to a sterile collection system
  • Optimal duration not determined so suggestion is to remove when urine looks clear, metabolic derangement and POD have resolved

Should I leave an indwelling catheter?
Additional features:

  • Coccygeal blocks – a step by step guide (easy when you know how!)
  • Quick reference data section e.g. retrograde positive contrast urethrogram
  • Drug calculators for speed of dose calculation for every drug on the site

Additional features:

Start your free 30-day free trial now to access the latest emergency medical advice, follow clinical best practice, reduce stress, contribute to your annual CPD targets and much more!

Special offers for BSAVA members. BSAVA members receive exclusive discounts and access to VETbytes. To find out more, click here.

VETbytes launches!

Revolutionary Point-of-Care App Launches, Giving Veterinary Professionals Rapid Evidence-Based Clinical Support

In partnership with the British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA), Vet2Vet has launched VETbytes, a mobile point-of-care clinical support tool that gives small animal veterinary professionals critical access to the latest evidence-based information

22 July, London – A new mobile app called VETbytes goes live today, providing veterinary surgeons, nurses and animal healthcare teams with an extensive library of concise medical summaries drawn from global guidelines and peer-reviewed journals. The web-based App has been launched in collaboration with the BSAVA, with discounted subscription fees for members and free access to veterinary students.

Founded by veterinary surgeons’ Dr Zoe Coker and Dr Bronwen Eastwood, VETbytes addresses the need for a mobile-friendly centralised resource of practical and evidence-based clinical guides that vets can access quickly and easily.

The Emergency Medicine app is the first part of a substantially developing resource for vets, nurses and practice teams. Created in association with first opinion vets, nurses and specialists, VETbytes provides the perfect balance of expertise and practicality.

“There is rarely time during the working day to read all the necessary journals, articles and up-to-date texts”, said Coker. “VETbytes collates all the evidence on a specific medical condition and consolidates it into a short synopsis called a Keep it Simple Summary (KISS).”

The goal of VETbytes is summarised by Eastwood: “The intention is to reduce stress in the workplace while improving clinical outcomes,” she said.

VETbytes was launched in collaboration with the BSAVA, whose guiding principle is to promote clinical excellence and evidence-based education to the veterinary community.

“BSAVA is excited and proud to be involved in the VETbytes project, which should provide significant benefits and support for our members,” said BSAVA President Professor Ian Ramsey. “Every busy small animal clinician should try out VETbytes as it is a real paradigm shift in mobile resources for vets.”

The summaries are readable in a few minutes and will guide veterinary professionals through the whole patient journey, enabling them to integrate the latest evidence-based guidance into their clinical workflow.

The VETbytes Emergency Medicine app currently covers more than 100 topics developed in consultation with more than 25 veterinary experts. Further benefits include drug (and CRI) calculators, a quick reference section and links to hundreds of source abstracts. The content encourages reflective learning and can be used towards CPD hours.

Available at the point of care on mobile, iPad or desktop, veterinary professionals can access the answers to their clinical questions, when and where they need them.

To start a free trial or subscribe to the VETbytes app, visit

Key features of VETbytes

VETbytes features

About Vet2Vet 

Vet2Vet was founded by veterinary surgeons’ Dr Zoe Coker and Dr Bronwen Eastwood, who launched VETbytes as a simple, accessible resource helping vets to practise evidence-based medicine and surgery. For more information, visit


The British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) exists to promote excellence in small animal practice through education and science. BSAVA is a not-for-profit professional body, founded in 1957 to serve veterinary surgeons treating companion animals, and now includes veterinary nurses. BSAVA has over 10,000 members, the majority work in practice as veterinary surgeons or veterinary nurses.

Contact information:

For media and marketing enquiries, email Alex Beveridge, [email protected].

Contact BSAVA: PR & Communications Office, [email protected] or call 01452 726729.