Non diabetic dogs evaluated in the emergency room (ER) with shock or hyperlactataemia had higher blood glucose (BG) values than those with normal perfusion and plasma lactate concentrations suggesting the existence of physiologic stress hyperglycaemia in this species
Journal citation

Hagley, S.P., Hopper, K., Epstein, S.E. (2020)
Etiology and prognosis for dogs with abnormal blood glucose concentrations evaluated in an emergency room
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care; 30 (5) 567-573
Abstract

Published September/October 2020

Type of study
  • Single-centre retrospective study
  • n = 660 dogs
Key points
  • Dysglycaemia is common in non-diabetic dogs evaluated in the ER (49%)
  • Reported range of blood glucose 0.9 – 45.7 mmol/L
  • Hyperglycaemia is more common (40.1%) than hypoglycaemia (9%) in this population of dogs
  • The most common disease processes in dogs with hyperglycaemia were gastrointestinal disease, trauma, neoplasia and respiratory disease
  • Dogs in shock or with hyperlactataemia had higher blood glucose values than those with normal perfusion and plasma lactate concentrations which suggests the existence of physiologic stress hyperglycaemia
  • The most commonly identified diseases in dogs with hypoglycaemia were sepsis, gastrointestinal disease and neoplasia
  • Dysglycaemia is associated with a higher mortality compared to dogs with normoglycaemia
  • Hypoglycaemic dogs in this study had a higher mortality rate than normoglycaemia or hyperglycaemic dogs

Limitations

  • There may have been some variability in blood glucose associated with food intake
  • The impact of various medications were not evaluated but this was considered unlikely to impact the results
  • Only the first measured BG sample by blood gas machines was reviewed which means results from hand-held monitors were excluded so it was not possible to assess if the dysglycaemia was transient or persistent
  • There was an unknown impact of in-hospital therapies and disease severity on patient outcome
Conclusions
  • Dysglycaemia is common in dogs presented to the ER and is associated with a higher mortality compared to dogs with normoglycaemia
  • Dogs in shock or with hyperlactataemia had higher blood glucose values than those with normal perfusion and plasma lactate concentrations which suggests the existence of physiologic stress hyperglycaemia