In dogs with Status epilepticus (SE) or cluster seizures presented to a teaching hospital, first seizure outside the defined idiopathic interval of 6mths to 6 years, absence of previous antiepileptic drug therapy in a dog with a history of seizures and hyperthermia at presentation were associated with a poor outcome
Journal citation

Cagnotti. G., Ferrini. S., Ala U., et al (2020)
Analysis of Early Assessable Risk Factors for Poor Outcome in Dogs With Cluster Seizures and Status Epilepticus 
Frontiers in Veterinary Science; 7:575551
Full text available

Published October 2020

Type of study
  • Retrospective study
  • n = 93 dogs
Key points
  • Aim of the study was to identify risk factors for a poor outcome in dogs with status epilepticus or cluster seizures
  • Study population were dogs admitted to a teaching hospital with SE or cluster seizures
  • Age at onset outside the idiopathic epilepsy interval (6 months to 6years) was found to predispose epileptic patients to a poor outcome. This may be because the patient is more likely to be affected by structural epilepsy in this age group
  • Patients with a history of seizures that had not received anti-epileptic medication had a poor outcome. The reasons for not receiving them could be due to a low frequency of seizure episodes or a lack of responsible management by the owner
  • Increased rectal temperature was more frequently recorded at presentation in patients that died during their hospital stay which may reflect the severity or duration of seizure activity
  • 23% mortality rate reported

Limitations

  • Both euthanasia and spontaneous death were recorded as poor outcomes, which introduces the potential of economic factors influencing outcome. However it appeared that the reasons for euthanasia were due to the presence of persistent uncontrolled seizures in all but one of the cases
Conclusions
  • Factors found to be associated with a poor outcome were first seizure outside the defined idiopathic epilepsy interval of 6 months to 6 years, absence of previous antiepileptic medication in a dog with a history of seizures and hyperthermia at presentation